Is the consolidation process of combining the financial statements of two or more companies different when they operate in different currencies? If you want to combine the financial statements prepared in different currencies, you will still follow the same consolidation procedures.
You still need to eliminate intragroup balances and transactions, including unrealized profits on intragroup sales and any dividends paid by a subsidiary to a parent. While the functional currency depends on the economic environment of a company and its specific operations, the presentation currency is a matter of CHOICE.
For example, take some UK company. Its functional currency is in most cases GBP exceptions exist , but this company can decide to prepare its financial statements in EUR or USD — they will be the presentation currencies.
What rates should we use to translate the financial statements in a presentation currency? Please note that the above table applies when neither functional nor presentation currency are that of a hyperinflationary economy. Actual rates are the rates at the date of the individual transactions, but you can use the average rate for the year if the actual rates do not differ too much.
If you translate the financial statements using different foreign exchange rates, then the balance sheet would not balance i. If you translate the financial statements to a presentation currency for the purpose of consolidation, you need to be careful with certain items. Some time ago, the exposure draft proposed to translate the equity items at the closing rate, but it was not included in the standard. It means that in most cases, companies decide whether they apply closing rate or historical rate.
However, they need to be consistent. For the share capital, the most appropriate seems to apply the historical rate applicable at the date of acquisition of the subsidiary by the parent , rather than the historical rate applicable when the share capital was issued. When the UK parent translates German financial statements to GBP for the consolidation purposes, the share capital will be translated at the historical rate applicable on 3 January If the equity balances result from income and expenses presented in OCI e.
Intragroup receivables and payables are translated at the closing rate , as any other assets or liabilities. Many people assume that exchange differences on intragroup receivables or payables should NOT affect the consolidated profit or loss.
UK parent sold goods to the German subsidiary for GBP 10 on 30 November and as of 31 December , the receivable is still open. On 31 December , German subsidiary translates this monetary payable by the closing rate in its own financial statements.
Be careful — this is the translation of a foreign currency payable to a functional currency, hence nothing to do with the consolidation. It stays there and it will become a part of a consolidated profit or loss, because it reflects the foreign exchange exposure resulting from foreign trade. Here, let me warn you about the exception.
Imagine the same situation as above. The only difference is that there was no intragroup sale of inventories. On the consolidation, the exchange rate gain of EUR 50 recorded in the German financial statements in profit or loss needs to be reclassified in OCI together with the difference that arises on translation of the EUR 50 by the average rate. With regard to profit or loss items, or intragroup sales — you should translate them at the date of a transaction if practical.
If not, then apply the average rates for the period. Here, IAS 21 is silent again, but in my opinion, the most appropriate seems to apply the rate ruling at the transaction date. They remain unsold in the UK warehouse at the year-end.
The cost of goods sold for the German subsidiary was EUR 4 Please note the little trick here. If the German subsidiary does NOT sell the inventories to the parent, but keeps them at its own warehouse — what would their amount for the consolidation purposes be?
If a subsidiary pays a dividend to its parent, then the parent records the dividend revenue at the rate applicable when the dividend was DECLARED , not paid. The goods remained unsold at the year-end and the payable was unpaid. The financial statements of the German subsidiary at 31 December Translate the financial statements of the German subsidiary at 31 December in the presentation currency of GBP for the purposes of consolidation.
Before you start working on the translation, you should present the intragroup balances separately — please see the table below. Also, I strongly recommend analyzing the retained earnings and equity items and present them separately as appropriate. Here, you should apply the acquisition date rate to the translation of pre-acquisition retained earnings, then the rate applicable in for profits, etc. Please also note, that no rate was applied for the profit presented in the statement of financial position under equity.
The reason is that you simply transfer this profit from the statement of profit or loss. Once you have translated the foreign currency balance sheet and the profit or loss statement or OCI , you can apply the usual consolidation procedures see the example here. Please, leave a comment below this article. Learn top 7 IFRS mistakes that companies make in their reporting and how to avoid them easily!
Silvia, could you please give an example how to eliminate the intragroup transactions out of the aggregate cash flows? By the way,the statement of cash flows here refers to which method, direct or indirect? Hi Fairuz, the cash flow statement here refers to either method. How to eliminate intragroup? In a very similar way as in the profit or loss statement.
So for example, imagine a subsidiary paid 5 CU to a parent for the goods. Then, the adjustment to eliminate would be to deduct 5 CU from both cash received from customers and cash paid to suppliers if done by direct method. In a case of indirect method, you need to think carefully in which items there are intragroup balances open in the operating part. This is quite a complex question and deserves a separate article. Also how is the foreign currency translation treated on the cashflow since all we have is average rates from both the parent and the subsidiary.
I think you need to give examples or practical illustrative to make it sink better. Thank you Silvia about your article. The same rules for foreign currency translation apply for associates and joint ventures. Silvia, could you please give an example on IFRS Leases which means how we can treat the prepayment for three years of building rent under lessee transaction and if you can please give detail examples of IFRS 16 as lessee and lessor.
Requesting you to please provide me a excel template , if available, for the consolidation of foreign currency subsidiaries. Could you please help me with the following issue: The presentation currency is USD. Companies B and C trade with each other, and have outstanding intragroup receivables and payables as at the year end amounting to 10, EUR.
Say, the rates are as follows. I understand that in a perfect world there should be no such differences, but the currencies in question are not actually USD, EUR and GBP and are not freely convertible, and a possibility for arbitrage exists. The question is — where does this difference go in the consolidated FS?
I would be very grateful for your help. Could you please explain how you get 12 GBP for profit though no rate are mentioned. My question is equity in subsidiary is included with forex reserve or excluded with forex reserve. The explanation and the practical case study is awesome. Just a quick question, are the foreign exchange differences in the parent company relating to intra group loans with those entities subsequently consolidated also recognised to OCI in both the unconsolidated and consolidated statements?
Could you please help me? As you may know, determining if remeasurement or translation is necessary under US GAAP depends, among other matters , on how the subsidiary company prepares its financial statements. If they are prepared in US dollars, no remeasurement, nor translation needs to be done by the US company to consolidate its financial statements.
If the subsidiary prepares its financial statements in a currency different from its functional currency, those statements need to be remeasured to its functinal currency. Once the subsidiary company statements were remeasured to functional currency, they need to be translated to the reporting currency in this case USD. But here come the questions… if this Latin American company decides to prepare its financial statements in both currencies US and local entity currency , can the US Company use the USD statements of the subsidiary to consolidate?
Is it generally accepted that a subsidiary prepares its financial statements in two different currencies? In this case it would be one for the parent company, intended to report to the management in USA using USD, and the other in local currency for local statutory presentation in the subsidiary country.
Hello silvia, iam a new subscriber, could you please assist me more practical examples of foreign currency tranlation and conversions, i will appreciate please.
Rates are given below: I ask this because my auditor seems to just translate the current year movement and post the value to FCTR. In a previous role, all balances were translated at the closing rate i. And finally, I find when I translate the intercompany balances historic and current year to the closing rate there is always a difference to the Parent company balance. No — please see above in the example. Retained earnings are reported at the historical rate. As for the difference — yes, it can happen and please revise the article for the explanation about intragroup assets and liabilities.
Have you come across companies translating RE at the closing rate as I have described? The intercompany in question is the parent funding a branch for over 2 years. When transfer pricing kick-ins the debt will start to reduce, but I think it could take 2 years to clear. Does the current rate hold in that instance? I was incorrectly putting the adjustment to the US entity. I believe it should go to the UK entity as the US entity is translated on a monthly basis and will have the correct valuation, i.
Please explain necessary steps and consolidation process if subsidiary accounting year is different with parents…. I have read Current Rate Method which is used for translation. Whether it comes from paragraph 39 of IAS 21? Regarding the translation of equity items, if we use the closing rate, then we will be dividing whole Balance Sheet with the same rate eventually leading to differences only due to Retained earnings.More...